Although some history books claim that hard bop arose as a reaction to the softer sounds featured in cool jazz, it was actually an extension of bop that largely ignored West Coast jazz. The main differences between hard bop and bop are that the melodies tend to be simpler and often more "soulful," the rhythm section is usually looser with the bassist not as tightly confined to playing four-beats-to-the-bar as in bop, a gospel influence is felt in some of the music and quite often the saxophonists and pianists sound as if they were quite familiar with early rhythm and blues. Since the prime time period of hard bop (1955-70) was a decade later than bop, these differences were a logical evolution and one can think of hard bop as bop of the 50's and 60's. By the early '60s, the music had already splintered into a number of different styles, notably Modal Jazz, Post-Bop and Soul-Jazz. By the second half of the 1960's, the influence of the avant-garde was being felt and some of the more adventurous performances of the hard bop stylists (such as Jackie McLean and Lee Morgan) fell somewhere between the two styles. With the rise of fusion and the sale of Blue Note (hard bop's top label) in the late 1960's, the style fell upon hard times although it was revived to a certain extent in the 1980's. Much of the music performed by the so-called Young Lions during the latter decade (due to other influences altering their style) can be said to play Modern Mainstream although some groups (such as the Harper Brothers and T.S. Monk's Sextet) have kept the 1960's idiom alive.

(Scott Yanow)


John Coltrane - Love Supreme

Listen to: Part 1 (Acknowledgement)

Coltrane, John (ts); Tyner, McCoy (p); Garrison, Jimmy (b); Jones, Elvin (dr)

Recorded: 09-12-1964



John Coltrane - Giant Steps

Listen to: Giant Steps

Coltrane, John (ts); Flanagan, Tommy (p); Chambers, Paul (b); Taylor, Art (dr)

Recorded: 05-05-1959



John Coltrane - Live At Birdland

Listen to: Afro Blue

Coltrane, John (ts); Tyner, McCoy (p); Garrison, Jimmy (b); Jones, Elvin (dr)

Recorded: 18-11-1963



John Coltrane - At The Village Vanguard

Listen to: Spiritual

Coltrane, John (ss); Dolphy, Eric (bcl); Tyner, McCoy (p); Workman, Reggie (b); Jones, Elvin (dr)

Recorded: 02 & 03. November 1961



Sonny Rollins - The Bridge

Listen to: Without A Song

Rollins, Sonny (ts); Hall, Jim (g); Cranshaw, Bob (b); Saunders, Harry (dr)

Recorded: 30-01-1962



Sonny Rollins - East Broadway Run Down

Listen to: East Broadway Run Down

Rollins, Sonny (ts); Hubbard, Freddie (tp); Garrison, Jimmy (b); Jones, Elvin (dr)

Recorded: 09-05-1966



Sonny Rollins - Sonny Meets Hawk

Listen to: Yesterdays

Rollins, Sonny (ts); Hawkins, Coleman (ts); Bley, Paul (p); McCurdy, Roy (dr); Cranshaw, Bob (b)

Recorded: 15 & 18 July 1963



Wayne Shorter - Supernova

Listen to: Super Nova

Shorter, Wayne (ss); McLaughlin, John (acg); Sharrock, Sonny (g); Booker, Walter (acg); Vitous, Miroslav (b); DeJohnette, Jack (dr); Corea, Chick (dr, vib); Moreira, Airto (perc); Booker, Maria (voc)

Recorded: 29-08-1969 und 02-09-1969



Wayne Shorter - Schizophrenia

Listen to: Schizophrenia

Fuller, Curtis (tb); Spaulding, James (as, fl); Shorter, Wayne (ts); Hancock, Herbie (p); Carter, Ron (b); Chambers, Joe (dr)

Recorded: 10-03-1967



Wayne Shorter - Speak No Evil

Listen to: Speak No Evil

Hubbard, Freddie (tp); Shorter, Wayne (ts); Hancock, Herbie (p); Carter, Ron (b); Jones, Elvin (dr)

Recorded: 08-11-1963



Joe Henderson - Mode For Joe

Listen to: Mode For Joe

Henderson, Joe (ts); Morgan, Lee (tp); Fuller, Curtis (tb); Hutcherson, Bobby (vib); Walton, Cedar (p); Carter, Ron (b); Chambers, Joe (dr)

Recorded: 27-01-1966



Joe Henderson - The State Of The Tenor

Listen to: Isotope

Henderson, Joe (ts); Carter, Ron (b); Foster, Al (dr)

Recorded: 14-16 November 1985



Booker Ervin - The Freedom Book

Listen to: A Lunar Tune

Ervin, Booker (ts); Byard, Jaki (p); Davis, Richard (b); Dawson, Alan (dr)

Recorded: 03-12-1963



Roland Kirk - Here Comes The Whistleman

Listen to: Here Comes The Whistleman

Kirk, Roland (ts, nose flute); Smith, Lonnie (p); Crosby, Charles (dr); Holley, Major (b)

Recorded: Unknown



Roland Kirk - Bright Moments

Listen to: Bright Moments

Kirk, Roland (ts, fl, manzello, stritch, nose flute); Burton, Ron (p); Pearson, Henry (b); Shy, Robert (dr); Habao, Joe (perc); Barkan, Todd (synth)

Recorded: 08-09 June 1973



Art Pepper - Live At The Village Vanguard

Listen to: The Trip

Pepper, Art (as); Cables, George (p); Mraz, George (b); Jones, Elvin (dr)

Recorded: 28-30 Oktober 1977



Eric Dolphy - At The Five Spot

Listen to: Fire Waltz

Little, Booker (tp); Dolphy, Eric (as, bcl, fl); Waldron, Mal (p); Davis, Richard (b); Blackwell, Ed (dr)

Recorded: 16-07-1961



Oliver Nelson - The Blues and The Abstract Truth

Listen to: Stolen Moments

Nelson, Oliver (as, ts); Dolphy, Eric (as, fl); Hubbard, Freddie (tp); Barrow, George (bs); Evans, Bill (p); Chambers, Paul (b); Haynes, Roy (dr)

Recorded: 23-02-1961



John Handy - Live At Monterey

Listen to: If Only We Know

Handy, John (as); White, Mike (viol); Hahn, Jerry (g); Thompson, Don (b); Clarke, Terry (dr)

Recorded: 18-09-1965